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The device of the hydroabrasive machine

The device of the hydroabrasive machine

Waterjet cutting machine used at industrial facilities , in private workshops, etc. Equipment of this type allows you to cut various materials. These are metal, glass, polymers and much more.

How it works

The equipment provides for the use of water and abrasive. This technology allows you to get a smooth cut without burrs. Fine quartz or garnet sand is used as an abrasive component. The principle of operation of the equipment is quite simple:

  • The water supply pump provides high pressure. Depending on the model, this figure can be up to 6500 bar.
  • Water enters the workpiece through a special nozzle. At the same time, a vacuum is formed in it.
  • Under the action of vacuum, garnet sand enters the nozzle.
  • A mixture of water and solid particles is applied to the workpiece in a thin jet under high pressure.

During the cutting process, the particles of the material are separated by the action of solid particles and washed out with water. In this case, the liquid not only removes the elements formed during the cutting process, but also cools the product. Due to this, the physical properties of the material do not change.

Machine device

Depending on the model, the details of the units and mechanisms may differ. The waterjet machine consists of:

  • Beds with protective covers.
  • The work surface. The coordinate table is equipped with fasteners for fixed fixation of the product.
  • High pressure pump. Necessary for injecting liquid.
  • Control systems. Includes sensors as well as controller and control box.
  • Containers with clean liquid. Water is taken from this reservoir for supply to the head.
  • Hose and piping systems. Needed to supply liquid and sand. Metal pipes are used, as well as low and high pressure hoses.
  • Tanks for placing garnet or quartz sand.
  • A reservoir to collect water after cutting. Metal particles, abrasive and contaminated liquid get into the container.

Also, the waterjet machine is equipped with a sand supply adjustment system. It allows you to control the amount of abrasive entering the workpiece.

Cutting head arrangement

The working tool performs two functions at the same time. This is the formation of the mixture, as well as its supply to the workpiece. The working head has a fairly simple device. It consists of several parts:

  1. Fluid supply tube. To achieve high pressure, the inner diameter of the nozzle is made with a diameter of 0.4 to 1.8 mm. In this case, high-strength composite materials are used. This approach allows you to increase the service life of the part. In the production of the tube, special attention is paid to the correctness of the shape of the hole and the absence of burrs. If there are protrusions, it is impossible to make the water jet even.
  2. Mixing chamber. It is a cavity in the tool through which fluid passes under high pressure. During operation, a vacuum is formed in the mixing chamber. Due to this, abrasive gets into it.
  3. Mix supply tube. Water and sand from the mixing chamber enter it. The inlet of the part is made in the form of a cone. This makes it easier for the mixture to get in. During operation, the inner surface of the tube is subjected to significant mechanical stress. For this reason, the part is made of high-strength materials.

When choosing a machine, its technical characteristics, as well as overall parameters, are taken into account. This allows you to select equipment that meets certain operating conditions.

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